Political Factors Affecting Microsoft

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Political Factors Affecting Microsoft

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Acts of fraud affect vote counts to bring about an election result, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. Also called voter fraud , the mechanisms involved include illegal voter registration, intimidation at polls, voting computer hacking , and improper vote counting. Embezzlement is the theft of entrusted funds. It is political when it involves public money taken by a public official for use by anyone not specified by the public. A common type of embezzlement is that of personal use of entrusted government resources; for example, when an official assigns public employees to renovate his own house.

A kickback is an official's share of misappropriated funds allocated from his or her organization to an organization involved in corrupt bidding. For example, suppose that a politician is in charge of choosing how to spend some public funds. He can give a contract to a company that is not the best bidder, or allocate more than they deserve. In this case, the company benefits, and in exchange for betraying the public, the official receives a kickback payment, which is a portion of the sum the company received. This sum itself may be all or a portion of the difference between the actual inflated payment to the company and the lower market-based price that would have been paid had the bidding been competitive.

Another example of a kickback would be if a judge receives a portion of the profits that a business makes in exchange for his judicial decisions. Kickbacks are not limited to government officials; any situation in which people are entrusted to spend funds that do not belong to them are susceptible to this kind of corruption. An unholy alliance is a coalition among seemingly antagonistic groups for ad hoc or hidden gain, generally some influential non-governmental group forming ties with political parties, supplying funding in exchange for the favorable treatment.

Like patronage, unholy alliances are not necessarily illegal, but unlike patronage, by its deceptive nature and often great financial resources, an unholy alliance can be much more dangerous to the public interest. An illustrative example of official involvement in organized crime can be found from the s and s Shanghai , where Huang Jinrong was a police chief in the French concession , while simultaneously being a gang boss and co-operating with Du Yuesheng , the local gang ringleader. The relationship kept the flow of profits from the gang's gambling dens, prostitution, and protection rackets undisturbed and safe.

The United States accused Manuel Noriega 's government in Panama of being a " narcokleptocracy ", a corrupt government profiting on illegal drug trade. Some research indicates that political corruption is contagious: the revelation of corruption in a sector leads others in the sector to engage in corruption. It is argued [ by whom? Thomas Jefferson observed a tendency for "The functionaries of every government There is no safe deposit [for liberty and property] Where the press is free, and every man able to read, all is safe.

Recent research supports Jefferson's claim. Brunetti and Weder found "evidence of a significant relationship between more press freedom and less corruption in a large cross-section of countries. Congressmen who are less covered by the local press work less for their constituencies: they are less likely to stand witness before congressional hearings Federal spending is lower in areas where there is less press coverage of the local members of congress.

An analysis of the evolution of mass media in the United States and European Union since World War II noted mixed results from the growth of the Internet: "The digital revolution has been good for freedom of expression [and] information [but] has had mixed effects on freedom of the press": It has disrupted traditional sources of funding, and new forms of Internet journalism have replaced only a tiny fraction of what's been lost. Media responses to whistleblower incidents or reports, and to matters which generate skepticism in established law and government but may not technically be whistleblower incidents, are limited by the prevalence of political correctness and speech codes in many Western nations.

In China and many other East Asian countries the state-enforced speech codes limit or, in their view, channel the efforts of the media and civil society to reduce public corruption. Extensive and diverse public spending is, in itself, inherently at risk of cronyism, kickbacks, and embezzlement. Complicated regulations and arbitrary, unsupervised official conduct exacerbate the problem. This is one argument for privatization and deregulation.

Opponents of privatization see the argument as ideological. The argument that corruption necessarily follows from the opportunity is weakened by the existence of countries with low to non-existent corruption but large public sectors, like the Nordic countries. Therefore, due to their lack of corruption in the first place, they can run large public sectors without inducing political corruption.

Recent evidence that takes both the size of expenditures and regulatory complexity into account has found that high-income democracies with more expansive state sectors do indeed have higher levels of corruption. Like other governmental economic activities, also privatization, such as in the sale of government-owned property, is particularly at the risk of cronyism. Privatizations in Russia, Latin America, and East Germany were accompanied by large-scale corruption during the sale of the state-owned companies.

Those with political connections unfairly gained large wealth, which has discredited privatization in these regions. While media have reported widely the grand corruption that accompanied the sales, studies have argued that in addition to increased operating efficiency, daily petty corruption is, or would be, larger without privatization and that corruption is more prevalent in non-privatized sectors. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that extralegal and unofficial activities are more prevalent in countries that privatized less. In the European Union, the principle of subsidiarity is applied: a government service should be provided by the lowest, most local authority that can competently provide it. An effect is that distribution of funds in multiple instances discourages embezzlement because even small sums missing will be noticed.

In contrast, in a centralized authority, even minute proportions of public funds can be large sums of money. Wealth and power can have a compounding effect on political corruption, however, the immunity from the law that money and influence bring will not come into effect when a powerful individual injures or harms another powerful individual. An example of this immunity being broken is Bernie Madoff, who while being rich and powerful himself, stole from other rich and powerful individuals. This resulted in his eventual arrest despite his status. If the highest echelons of the governments also take advantage of corruption or embezzlement from the state's treasury, it is sometimes referred to the neologism kleptocracy.

Members of the government can take advantage of the natural resources e. A number of corrupt governments have enriched themselves via foreign aid. Indeed, there is a positive correlation between aid flows and high levels of corruption within recipient countries. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa consists primarily of extracting economic rent and moving the resulting financial capital overseas instead of investing at home. Authors Leonce Ndikumana and James K. A corrupt dictatorship typically results in many years of general hardship and suffering for the vast majority of citizens as civil society and the rule of law disintegrate.

In addition, corrupt dictators routinely ignore economic and social problems in their quest to amass ever more wealth and power. The classic case of a corrupt, exploitive dictator often given is the regime of Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko , who ruled the Democratic Republic of the Congo which he renamed Zaire from to Another classic case is Nigeria , especially under the rule of General Sani Abacha who was de facto president of Nigeria from until his death in He and his relatives are often mentioned in Nigerian letter scams claiming to offer vast fortunes for "help" in laundering his stolen "fortunes", which in reality turn out not to exist.

There are two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the state through budget planning and various privileges , and the private. Budget of the judiciary in many transitional and developing countries is almost completely controlled by the executive. The latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics. Mobile telecommunications and radio broadcasting help to fight corruption, especially in developing regions like Africa , [62] where other forms of communications are limited.

In India, the anti-corruption bureau fights against corruption, and a new ombudsman bill called Jan Lokpal Bill is being prepared. In the s, initiatives were taken at an international level in particular by the European Community , the Council of Europe , the OECD to put a ban on corruption: in , the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, [63] for instance, adopted a comprehensive Programme of Action against Corruption and, subsequently, issued a series of anti-corruption standard-setting instruments:. The purpose of these instruments was to address the various forms of corruption involving the public sector, the private sector, the financing of political activities, etc.

To monitor the implementation at national level of the requirements and principles provided in those texts, a monitoring mechanism — the Group of States Against Corruption also known as GRECO French: Groupe d'Etats contre la corruption was created. Further conventions were adopted at the regional level under the aegis of the Organization of American States OAS or OEA , the African Union , and in , at the universal level under that of the United Nations Convention against Corruption where it is enabled with mutual legal assistance between the states parties regarding investigations, processes and judicial actions related to corruption crimes, as established in article A whistleblower also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

Those who become whistleblowers can choose to bring information or allegations to the surface either internally or externally. Externally, a whistleblower can bring allegations to light by contacting a third party outside of an accused organization such as the media, government, law enforcement, or those who are concerned. Whistleblowers, however, take the risk of facing stiff reprisal and retaliation from those who are accused or alleged of wrongdoing.

Because of this, a number of laws exist to protect whistleblowers. Some third-party groups even offer protection to whistleblowers, but that protection can only go so far. Whistleblowers face legal action, criminal charges, social stigma, and termination from any position, office, or job. Two other classifications of whistleblowing are private and public. The classifications relate to the type of organizations someone chooses to whistle-blow on private sector, or public sector. Depending on many factors, both can have varying results. However, whistleblowing in the public sector organization is more likely to result in criminal charges and possible custodial sentences.

A whistleblower who chooses to accuse a private sector organization or agency is more likely to face termination and legal and civil charges. Deeper questions and theories of whistleblowing and why people choose to do so can be studied through an ethical approach. Whistleblowing is a topic of ongoing ethical debate. Leading arguments in the ideological camp that whistleblowing is ethical to maintain that whistleblowing is a form of civil disobedience, and aims to protect the public from government wrongdoing. In the opposite camp, some see whistleblowing as unethical for breaching confidentiality, especially in industries that handle sensitive client or patient information. Legal protection can also be granted to protect whistleblowers, but that protection is subject to many stipulations.

Hundreds of laws grant protection to whistleblowers, but stipulations can easily cloud that protection and leave whistleblowers vulnerable to retaliation and legal trouble. However, the decision and action have become far more complicated with recent advancements in technology and communication. Whistleblowers frequently face reprisal, sometimes at the hands of the organization or group they have accused, sometimes from related organizations, and sometimes under law. Questions about the legitimacy of whistleblowing, the moral responsibility of whistleblowing, and the appraisal of the institutions of whistleblowing are part of the field of political ethics. Measuring corruption accurately is difficult if not impossible due to the illicit nature of the transaction and imprecise definitions of corruption.

One of the most common ways to estimate corruption is through perception surveys. They have the advantage of good coverage, however, they do not measure corruption precisely. This work is often credited with breaking a taboo and forcing the issue of corruption into high-level development policy discourse. Transparency International currently publishes three measures, updated annually: a CPI based on aggregating third-party polling of public perceptions of how corrupt different countries are ; a Global Corruption Barometer based on a survey of general public attitudes toward and experience of corruption ; and a Bribe Payers Index , looking at the willingness of foreign firms to pay bribes.

The Corruption Perceptions Index is the best known of these metrics, though it has drawn much criticism [69] [71] [72] and may be declining in influence. This index evaluates the risk of corruption in countries' military sector. The World Bank collects a range of data on corruption, [75] including survey responses from over , firms worldwide [76] and a set of indicators of governance and institutional quality. Despite these weaknesses, the global coverage of these datasets has led to their widespread adoption, most notably by the Millennium Challenge Corporation. A number of parties have collected survey data, from the public and from experts, to try to gauge the level of corruption and bribery, as well as its impact on political and economic outcomes.

These metrics include the Global Integrity Index, [80] first published in These second wave projects aim to create policy change by identifying resources more effectively and creating checklists toward incremental reform. Global Integrity and the International Budget Partnership [81] each dispense with public surveys and instead uses in-country experts to evaluate "the opposite of corruption" — which Global Integrity defines as the public policies that prevent, discourage, or expose corruption. Typical second wave corruption metrics do not offer the worldwide coverage found in first wave projects and instead focus on localizing information gathered to specific problems and creating deep, "unpackable" [ clarification needed ] content that matches quantitative and qualitative data.

Alternative approaches, such as the British aid agency's Drivers of Change research, skips numbers and promotes understanding corruption via political economy analysis of who controls power in a given society. The following are examples of works of fiction that portray political corruption in various forms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Use of power by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Further information: Human impact on the environment. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Bribery. Main article: Influence peddling. Main article: Patronage. Main articles: Nepotism and Cronyism. See also: Keep the bastards honest. Main articles: Gombeen man and Parochialism. Main article: Electoral fraud. Main article: Embezzlement. Main article: Kickback bribery.

Main article: Unholy alliance geopolitical. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. This list should serve only as a guide to get you started. Some of these factors will be irrelevant in a particular industry or competitive situation; others may need to be added, as appropriate. The factors are grouped into three categories of organisational competency, and you will use your differentiators. Examples of Success Factors:. Industry, Strategy, Environmental, Temporal [delete as appropriate]. Industry, Strategy, Environmental, Temporal [delete as appropriate] Industry, Strategy, Environmental, Temporal [delete as appropriate] Industry, Strategy, Environmental, Temporal [delete as appropriate] Industry, Strategy, Environmental, Temporal [delete as appropriate].

Is Data Available? If yes, Data Source? If no, is it possible to collect? Quality of Data? Are targets Available? Research has shown that to complete a project successfully, the following critical success factors apply:. You can have all of the above elements, but if you lack an engaged and involved business sponsor , your chances for success are greatly lessened. Many projects were delivered with significant functionality missing, often cancelled after requirements definition. In , the Gartner group updated their research to include lack of executive sponsorship as a major contributor to project failures. According to a Standish Group Report, the top success factors for projects were as follows. The list is in decreasing order of percentage factors responsible for success.

See more articles on our articles microsite. Mike is a consultant and change agent specialising in developing skills in senior people to increase organizational performance. Twitter Comment. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. The idea is straightforward: in any organisation, certain factors will be critical to the success of that organisation, in the sense that, if objectives associated with the elements are not achieved, the organisation will fail — perhaps catastrophically so.

And one of the earliest methods of this is by Chief executives define their own data needs. Irwin, 2 p This publication seems to be one of the earliest and most extensively cited books in the early days of CSFs. Rockart and Bullen presented five key sources of CSFs:. Each of these factors is explained in greater detail below. Temporal Factors Critical success factor Critical success factor Critical success factor Temporal factors: These relate to short-term situations, often crises.

These factors are customised for companies and individuals and the customisation results from the uniqueness of the organisation. However, due care should be exercised in identifying them due to the largely qualitative approach to the identification, leaving many possible options for the factors and potentially results in discussions and debate. Are the needs of the user being met as well as those of the enterprise? The Critical Success Factors we have identified and use in the BIR process are captured in the mnemonic PRIMO-F People — availability, skills and attitude Resources — People, equipment, etc Innovation — ideas and development Marketing — supplier relation, customer satisfaction, etc Operations — continuous improvement, quality, Finance — cash flow, available investment etc Following is a sample list of the more common success factors.

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