Annotated Bibliography Things Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe

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Annotated Bibliography Things Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe



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Lecture 07 - Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart (I)

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The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Demons was finished on 26 November and released in January by the "Dostoevsky Publishing Company", which was founded by Dostoevsky and his wife. Although they accepted only cash payments and the bookshop was in their own apartment, the business was successful, and they sold around 3, copies of Demons. Anna managed the finances. Dostoevsky proposed that they establish a new periodical, which would be called A Writer's Diary and would include a collection of essays, but funds were lacking, and the Diary was published in Vladimir Meshchersky 's The Citizen , beginning on 1 January, in return for a salary of 3, rubles per year. In the summer of , Anna returned to Staraya Russa with the children, while Dostoevsky stayed in St Petersburg to continue with his Diary.

In March , Dostoevsky left The Citizen because of the stressful work and interference from the Russian bureaucracy. In his fifteen months with The Citizen , he had been taken to court twice: on 11 June for citing the words of Prince Meshchersky without permission, and again on 23 March Dostoevsky offered to sell a new novel he had not yet begun to write to The Russian Messenger , but the magazine refused.

Nikolay Nekrasov suggested that he publish A Writer's Diary in Notes of the Fatherland ; he would receive rubles for each printer's sheet — more than the text's publication in The Russian Messenger would have earned. Dostoevsky accepted. As his health began to decline, he consulted several doctors in St Petersburg and was advised to take a cure outside Russia. Around July, he reached Ems and consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with acute catarrh.

During his stay he began The Adolescent. He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. Anna proposed that they spend the winter in Staraya Russa to allow Dostoevsky to rest, although doctors had suggested a second visit to Ems because his health had previously improved there. Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of , although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January.

The Adolescent chronicles the life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the illegitimate child of the landowner Versilov and a peasant mother. It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works. In early , Dostoevsky continued work on his Diary. The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics. The collection sold more than twice as many copies as his previous books. Dostoevsky received more letters from readers than ever before, and people of all ages and occupations visited him. With assistance from Anna's brother, the family bought a dacha in Staraya Russa.

In the summer of , Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of breath again. He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate. When he returned to Russia, Tsar Alexander II ordered Dostoevsky to visit his palace to present the Diary to him, and he asked him to educate his sons, Sergey and Paul. This visit further increased Dosteyevsky's circle of acquaintances. Dostoevsky's health declined further, and in March he had four epileptic seizures.

Rather than returning to Ems, he visited Maly Prikol, a manor near Kursk. While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary , he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood. In December he attended Nekrasov's funeral and gave a speech. He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences , from which he received an honorary certificate in February He declined an invitation to an international congress on copyright in Paris after his son Alyosha had a severe epileptic seizure and died on 16 May. The family later moved to the apartment where Dostoevsky had written his first works.

Around this time, he was elected to the board of directors of the Slavic Benevolent Society in Saint Petersburg. Dostoevsky made his fourth and final visit to Ems in early August He was diagnosed with early-stage pulmonary emphysema , which his doctor believed could be successfully managed, but not cured. On 3 February Dostoevsky was elected vice-president of the Slavic Benevolent Society, and he was invited to speak at the unveiling of the Pushkin memorial in Moscow. On 8 June he delivered his speech , giving an impressive performance that had a significant emotional impact on his audience. His speech was met with thunderous applause, and even his long-time rival Turgenev embraced him. Konstantin Staniukovich praised the speech in his essay "The Pushkin Anniversary and Dostoevsky's Speech" in The Business , writing that "the language of Dostoevsky's [Pushkin Speech] really looks like a sermon.

He speaks with the tone of a prophet. He makes a sermon like a pastor; it is very deep, sincere, and we understand that he wants to impress the emotions of his listeners. On 6 February [ O. Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder. A third haemorrhage followed shortly afterwards. The profound meaning of this request is pointed out by Frank:. It was this parable of transgression, repentance, and forgiveness that he wished to leave as a last heritage to his children, and it may well be seen as his own ultimate understanding of the meaning of his life and the message of his work.

Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of Matthew —15 : "But John forbad him, saying, I have a need to be baptised of thee, and comest thou to me? And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness", and he finished with "Hear now—permit it. Do not restrain me! It is unclear how many attended his funeral. According to one reporter, more than , mourners were present, while others describe attendance between 40, and 50, His tombstone is inscribed with lines from the New Testament: [] [].

Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it dies, it bringeth forth much fruit. Dostoevsky had his first known affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he met in the Panayev circle in the early s. He described her as educated, interested in literature, and a femme fatale. Dostoevsky and Apollonia Polina Suslova had a short but intimate affair, which peaked in the winter of — Suslova's dalliance with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky's gambling addiction and age ended their relationship.

He later described her in a letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a "great egoist. Her egoism and her vanity are colossal. She demands everything of other people, all the perfections, and does not pardon the slightest imperfection in the light of other qualities that one may possess", and later stated "I still love her, but I do not want to love her any more. She doesn't deserve this love Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky , she would not live with him. Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends. She wrote that he "became very attracted to me". Her relationship with Dostoevsky is known only through letters written between November and January Their relationship is not verified; Anna Dostoevskaya spoke of a good affair, but Korvin-Krukovskaya's sister, the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya , thought that Korvin-Krukovskaya had rejected him.

In his youth, Dostoevsky enjoyed reading Nikolai Karamzin 's History of the Russian State , which praised conservatism and Russian independence, ideas that Dostoevsky would embrace later in life. Before his arrest for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle in , Dostoevsky remarked, "As far as I am concerned, nothing was ever more ridiculous than the idea of a republican government in Russia. While critical of serfdom, Dostoevsky was skeptical about the creation of a constitution , a concept he viewed as unrelated to Russia's history.

He described it as a mere "gentleman's rule" and believed that "a constitution would simply enslave the people". He advocated social change instead, for example removal of the feudal system and a weakening of the divisions between the peasantry and the affluent classes. His ideal was a utopian , Christianized Russia where "if everyone were actively Christian, not a single social question would come up If they were Christians they would settle everything". In the s, he discovered Pochvennichestvo , a movement similar to Slavophilism in that it rejected Europe's culture and contemporary philosophical movements, such as nihilism and materialism. Pochvennichestvo differed from Slavophilism in aiming to establish, not an isolated Russia, but a more open state modelled on the Russia of Peter the Great.

In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation "the second stage in human history" had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God. He asserted that the traditional concept of Christianity should be recovered. He thought that contemporary western Europe had "rejected the single formula for their salvation that came from God and was proclaimed through revelation, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself', and replaced it with practical conclusions such as, ' Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous ' [Every man for himself and God for all], or "scientific" slogans like ' the struggle for survival.

Dostoevsky distinguished three "enormous world ideas" prevalent in his time: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy. He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ.

For Dostoevsky, socialism was "the latest incarnation of the Catholic idea" and its "natural ally". He deemed Russian Orthodoxy to be the ideal form of Christianity. For all that, to place Dostoevsky politically is not that simple, but: as a Christian, he rejected the atheistic socialism; as a traditionalist, he rejected the destruction of the institutions; and, as a pacifist, he rejected any violent method or upheaval led by either progressives or reactionaries. He supported private property and business rights, and did not agree with many criticisms of the free market from the socialist utopians of his time. During the Russo-Turkish War , Dostoevsky asserted that war might be necessary if salvation were to be granted. He wanted the Muslim Ottoman Empire eliminated and the Christian Byzantine Empire restored, and he hoped for the liberation of Balkan Slavs and their unification with the Russian Empire.

Many characters in Dostoevsky's works, including Jews, have been described as displaying negative stereotypes. But as you say, its century existence proves that this tribe has exceptional vitality, which would not help, during the course of its history, taking the form of various Status in Statu Dostoevsky held negative views of the Ottoman Turks , dedicating multiple pages to them in his "Writer's Diary", professing the need to have no pity for Turks at war and no regrets in killing Turks and depopulating Istanbul of the Turkish population and shipping it to Asia.

Dostoevsky was an Orthodox Christian [] who was raised in a religious family and knew the Gospel from a very young age. Sergius Trinity Monastery. According to an officer at the military academy, Dostoevsky was profoundly religious, followed Orthodox practice, and regularly read the Gospels and Heinrich Zschokke 's Die Stunden der Andacht "Hours of Devotion" , which "preached a sentimental version of Christianity entirely free from dogmatic content and with a strong emphasis on giving Christian love a social application. In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky revived his faith by looking frequently at the stars. Wrangel said that he was "rather pious, but did not often go to church, and disliked priests, especially the Siberian ones.

But he spoke about Christ ecstatically. Two pilgrimages and two works by Dmitri Rostovsky , an archbishop who influenced Ukrainian and Russian literature by composing groundbreaking religious plays, strengthened his beliefs. Dostoevsky's canon includes novels, novellas, novelettes , short stories, essays, pamphlets , limericks , epigrams and poems. He wrote more than letters, a dozen of which are lost. Dostoevsky expressed religious, psychological, and philosophical ideas in his writings. His works explore such themes as suicide, poverty, human manipulation, and morality.

Psychological themes include dreaming, first seen in "White Nights", [] and the father-son relationship, beginning in The Adolescent. The influences of other writers, particularly evident in his early works, led to accusations of plagiarism , [] [] but his style gradually became more individual. After his release from prison, Dostoevsky incorporated religious themes, especially those of Russian Orthodoxy, into his writing. Elements of gothic fiction , [] romanticism , [] and satire [] are observable in some of his books. He frequently used autobiographical or semi-autobiographical details. An important stylistic element in Dostoevsky's writing is polyphony , the simultaneous presence of multiple narrative voices and perspectives. Polyphony is a literary concept, analogous with musical polyphony , developed by Mikhail Bakhtin on the basis of his analyses of Dostoevsky's works.

Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential novelists of the Golden Age of Russian literature. His psychologic sense is overwhelming and visionary. Bakhtin argued that Dostoevsky's use of multiple voices was a major advancement in the development of the novel as a genre. In his posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast , Ernest Hemingway stated that in Dostoevsky "there were things believable and not to be believed, but some so true that they changed you as you read them; frailty and madness, wickedness and saintliness, and the insanity of gambling were there to know". It was his explosive power which shattered the Victorian novel with its simpering maidens and ordered commonplaces; books which were without imagination or violence.

In an olive-green postage stamp dedicated to Dostoevsky was released in the Soviet Union, with a print run of 1, copies. Coetzee featured Dostoevsky as the protagonist in his novel The Master of Petersburg. The Dostoyevskaya metro station in Saint Petersburg was opened on 30 December , and the station of the same name in Moscow was opened on 19 June , the 75th anniversary of the Moscow Metro. The Moscow station is decorated with murals by artist Ivan Nikolaev depicting scenes from Dostoevsky's works, such as controversial suicides. Dostoevsky's work did not always gain a positive reception. Some critics, such as Nikolay Dobrolyubov , Ivan Bunin and Vladimir Nabokov , viewed his writing as excessively psychological and philosophical rather than artistic.

Others found fault with chaotic and disorganised plots, and others, like Turgenev, objected to "excessive psychologising" and too-detailed naturalism. His style was deemed "prolix, repetitious and lacking in polish, balance, restraint and good taste". These characters were compared to those of Hoffmann, an author whom Dostoevsky admired. Basing his estimation on stated criteria of enduring art and individual genius, Nabokov judges Dostoevsky "not a great writer, but rather a mediocre one—with flashes of excellent humour but, alas, with wastelands of literary platitudes in between". Nabokov complains that the novels are peopled by "neurotics and lunatics" and states that Dostoevsky's characters do not develop: "We get them all complete at the beginning of the tale and so they remain.

Dostoevsky's books have been translated into more than languages. French, German and Italian translations usually came directly from the original, while English translations were second-hand and of poor quality. Dostoevsky's works were interpreted in film and on stage in many different countries. Dostoevsky did not refuse permission, but he advised against it, as he believed that "each art corresponds to a series of poetic thoughts, so that one idea cannot be expressed in another non-corresponding form".

His extensive explanations in opposition to the transposition of his works into other media were groundbreaking in fidelity criticism. He thought that just one episode should be dramatised, or an idea should be taken and incorporated into a separate plot. After the Russian Revolution , passages of Dostoevsky books were sometimes shortened, although only two books were censored: Demons [] and Diary of a Writer. Dostoevsky's works of fiction include 15 novels and novellas, 17 short stories, and 5 translations.

Many of his longer novels were first published in serialised form in literary magazines and journals. The years given below indicate the year in which the novel's final part or first complete book edition was published. In English many of his novels and stories are known by different titles. Poor Folk is an epistolary novel that describes the relationship between the small, elderly official Makar Devushkin and the young seamstress Varvara Dobroselova, remote relatives who write letters to each other. Makar's tender, sentimental adoration for Varvara and her confident, warm friendship for him explain their evident preference for a simple life, although it keeps them in humiliating poverty. An unscrupulous merchant finds the inexperienced girl and hires her as his housewife and guarantor.

He sends her to a manor somewhere on a steppe, while Makar alleviates his misery and pain with alcohol. The story focuses on poor people who struggle with their lack of self-esteem. Their misery leads to the loss of their inner freedom, to dependence on the social authorities, and to the extinction of their individuality. Dostoevsky shows how poverty and dependence are indissolubly aligned with deflection and deformation of self-esteem, combining inward and outerward suffering. Notes from Underground is split into two stylistically different parts, the first essay-like, the second in narrative style.

The protagonist and first-person narrator is an unnamed year-old civil servant known as The Underground Man. The only known facts about his situation are that he has quit the service, lives in a basement flat on the outskirts of Saint Petersburg and finances his livelihood from a modest inheritance. The first part is a record of his thoughts about society and his character. He describes himself as vicious, squalid and ugly; the chief focuses of his polemic are the "modern human" and his vision of the world, which he attacks severely and cynically, and towards which he develops aggression and vengefulness.

He considers his own decline natural and necessary. Although he emphasises that he does not intend to publish his notes for the public, the narrator appeals repeatedly to an ill-described audience, whose questions he tries to address. In the second part he describes scenes from his life that are responsible for his failure in personal and professional life and in his love life. He tells of meeting old school friends, who are in secure positions and treat him with condescension.

His aggression turns inward on to himself and he tries to humiliate himself further. He presents himself as a possible saviour to the poor prostitute Lisa, advising her to reject self-reproach when she looks to him for hope. Dostoevsky added a short commentary saying that although the storyline and characters are fictional, such things were inevitable in contemporary society. The Underground Man was very influential on philosophers. His alienated existence from the mainstream influenced modernist literature. The novel Crime and Punishment has received both critical and popular acclaim, and is often cited as Dostoevsky's magnum opus.

The novel describes the fictional Rodion Raskolnikov 's life, from the murder of a pawnbroker and her sister, through spiritual regeneration with the help and love of Sonya a " hooker with a heart of gold " , to his sentence in Siberia. Strakhov liked the novel, remarking that "Only Crime and Punishment was read in " and that Dostoevsky had managed to portray a Russian person aptly and realistically. The novel's protagonist, the year-old Prince Myshkin , returns to Russia after several years at a Swiss sanatorium.

Scorned by Saint Petersburg society for his trusting nature and naivety, he finds himself at the center of a struggle between a beautiful kept woman, Nastasya, and a jealous but pretty young girl, Aglaya, both of whom win his affection. Unfortunately, Myshkin's goodness precipitates disaster, leaving the impression that, in a world obsessed with money, power and sexual conquest, a sanatorium may be the only place for a saint. Myshkin is the personification of a "relatively beautiful man", namely Christ.

Coming "from above" the Swiss mountains , he physically resembles common depictions of Jesus Christ : slightly larger than average, with thick, blond hair, sunken cheeks and a thin, almost entirely white goatee. Like Christ, Myshkin is a teacher, confessor and mysterious outsider. Passions such as greed and jealousy are alien to him. In contrast to those around him, he puts no value on money and power. He feels compassion and love, sincerely, without judgment. His relationship with the immoral Nastasya is obviously inspired by Christ's relationship with Mary Magdalene. He is called "Idiot" because of such differences. It was influenced by the Book of Revelation. Stepan's son Pyotr is an aspiring revolutionary conspirator who attempts to organise revolutionaries in the area.

He considers Varvara's son Nikolai central to his plot, because he thinks that Nikolai lacks sympathy for mankind. Pyotr gathers conspirators such as the philosophising Shigalyov, the suicidal Kirillov and the former military man Virginsky. He schemes to consolidate their loyalty to him and each other by murdering Ivan Shatov, a fellow conspirator. Pyotr plans to have Kirillov, who is committed to killing himself, take credit for the murder in his suicide note. Kirillov complies and Pyotr murders Shatov, but his scheme goes awry. Pyotr escapes, but the remainder of his aspiring revolutionary crew is arrested. In the denouement, Nikolai kills himself, tortured by his own misdeeds.

At nearly pages, The Brothers Karamazov is Dostoevsky's largest work. It received both critical and popular acclaim and is often cited as his magnum opus. The first books introduce the Karamazovs. The main plot is the death of their father Fyodor, while other parts are philosophical and religious arguments by Father Zosima to Alyosha. Instead of answering him, Christ gives him a kiss, and the Inquisitor subsequently releases him, telling him not to return.

The tale was misunderstood as a defence of the Inquisitor, but some, such as Romano Guardini , have argued that the Christ of the parable was Ivan's own interpretation of Christ, "the idealistic product of the unbelief". Ivan, however, has stated that he is against Christ. Most contemporary critics and scholars agree that Dostoevsky is attacking Roman Catholicism and socialist atheism, both represented by the Inquisitor. He warns the readers against a terrible revelation in the future, referring to the Donation of Pepin around and the Spanish Inquisition in the 16th century, which in his view corrupted true Christianity.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Russian author For the surname, see Dostoevsky surname. In this Eastern Slavic naming convention , the patronymic is Mikhailovich and the family name is Dostoevsky. Military engineer novelist journalist. Novel short story journalism. Psychology philosophy Christianity. Maria Dmitriyevna Isaeva. Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina. Main article: Themes in Fyodor Dostoevsky's writings. Main article: Poor Folk. Main article: Notes from Underground.

Main article: Crime and Punishment. Main article: The Idiot. Main article: Demons Dostoevsky novel. Main article: The Brothers Karamazov. Main article: Fyodor Dostoevsky bibliography. Vremya and its successor Epokha expressed the philosophy of the conservative and Slavophile movement Pochvennichestvo , supported by Dostoevsky during his term of imprisonment and in the following years. According to biographer Joseph Frank, Dostoevsky took that as a sign not to gamble any more. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved 12 September Handbook of Russian Literature. Yale University Press. Brief Literary Encyclopedia in 9 Volumes.

Retrieved 1 December Dostoevsky's Democracy. Princeton University Press. Letter to Gogol. Retrieved 27 December Anthem Press. The Dostoyevsky Encyclopedia in Russian. Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 5 November Dostoevsky Literary Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 25 March Dostoyevsky: A Human Portrait , Knopf, , p. A Writer's Diary. Northwestern University Press. Retrieved 3 July Commentary Magazine. Selected Letters of Fyodor Dostoevsky. Cambridge Studies in Russian Literature. Dostoyevsky and the Process of Literary Creation. Edited and translated by Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. The Boundaries of Realism in World Literature. Fyodor Dostoyevsky: A Study.

Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific. Einstein and Soviet Ideology. Physics Today. Stanford University Press. Bibcode : PhT Academic Foundation. Conversations with James Joyce. University of Toronto. Archived from the original on 12 September The Common Reader. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Kafka: Gothic and Fairytale. Written at the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures. Dostoevsky Studies. Freud, the Mind of the Moralist 3rd ed. University of Chicago Press. The Romantic Manifesto. Soyuzpechat [ ru ]. Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 20 April The Hindu. Name of Russia. Moscow Metro. Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 25 November Lectures on Russian Literature.

Lawrence, E. Merriman-Labor Minty Alley by C. She opens the door wearing a crumpled T-shirt, cycling shorts, slippers in the shape of comic-book gophers which he finds silly, tasteless. He has given her no warning; she is too surprised to resist the intruder who thrusts himself upon her. Words heavy as clubs thud into the delicate whorl of her ear. He carries her to the bedroom, brushes off the absurd slippers, kisses her feet, astonished by the feeling she evokes. Something to do with the apparition on the stage: the wig, the wiggling bottom, the crude talk. Strange love! Yet from the quiver of Aphrodite, goddess of the foaming waves, no doubt about that. She does not resist. All she does is avert herself: avert her lips, avert her eyes.

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