Parent Child Relationships In Amy Tans Two Kinds

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Parent Child Relationships In Amy Tans Two Kinds



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Two Kinds BY Amy Tan

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The array operations of multiplication, right and left division, and exponentiation are indicated by. They may be used to evaluate a formula repeatedly for some or all of the elements of a vector. This is called vectorization of the formula. If the index of a for statement is used in the expression being repeated, the expression can often be vectorized, saving a great deal of computing time. Any expression that evaluates to zero is regarded as false. Any other value is true. The elseif ladder is a good way to choose between a number of options, only one of which should be true at a time. Answer: 3. The volume of a tank is given as 2 gallons and 4 pints. Write a script that inputs this volume in gallons and pints and converts it to liters.

Answer: Now try to add tangents in the fourth column. Try some variations of the format command. Answer: 10, 2. The marks are out of Write a statement to find and display the average mark. Try it on the following: 5 8 0 10 3 8 5 7 9 4 Answer: 5. Can you do even better by vectorizing the code? Can you figure out what it is? Now rewrite the script using vectors and array operations. Draw up a table of the values of i, j, and m to show how they change while the script executes. Check your answers by running the script. Compute the value of I. Answer: 0. Write a program that enters the following five consumptions into a vec- tor and uses a for loop to calculate and display the total charge for each one: , , , , Write a program to compute and print the balance each month for a year.

Write a program that uses a for loop to compute the balance after a year of compounding interest in this way. Answer: Values in the last row of output should be 12, 0. Write a program to compute and display the population every ten years from to Try to plot a graph of the population against time as well. Use the built-in function log for the natural logarithm ln. A Supplementary material 81 b Use your program to find out by trial and error the smallest monthly payment that will pay off the loan this side of eternity. We will consider the design of your own toolbox to be included Harmonic among those already available with your version of MATLAB, such as Simulink, oscillators In the first part of this chapter we discuss the design process. In the second part we examine the structure plan—the detailed description of the algorithm to be implemented.

We will consider relatively simple programs. However, the pro- cess described is intended to provide insight into what you will confront when you deal with more complex engineering, scientific, and mathematical prob- lems during the later years of your formal education, your life-long learning, and your continuing professional education. In the third part we introduce the basic construct of a MATLAB function to help you develop more sophisticated programs. To be sure, the examples examined so far have been logically simple. It is very important to learn how MATLAB does the arith- metic operations that form the basis of more complex programs. To design a successful program you need to understand a problem thoroughly and break it down into its most fundamental logical stages.

In other words, you have to develop a systematic procedure or algorithm for solving it. There are a number of methods that may assist in algorithm development. In this chapter we look at one, the structure plan. Its development is the primary part of the software or code design process because it is the steps in it that are translated into a language the computer can understand—for example, into MATLAB commands. There are numerous toolboxes available through MathWorks among others on a variety of engi- neering and scientific topics. A great example is the Aerospace Toolbox, which provides reference standards, environmental models, and aerodynamic coef- ficients importing for advanced aerospace engineering designs.

In your working directory, e. Certainly, you want to be sure that the tools you save are reasonably well writ- ten i. What does it mean to create well-written programs? The goals in designing a software tool are that it works, it can easily be read and understood, and, hence, it can be systematically modified when required. For programs to work well they must satisfy the requirements associated with the problem or class of problems they are intended to solve. The specifications i. That is, all options should be usable without error within the limits of the specifications see Figs.

Thus, it is useful to decompose major tasks or the main program into subtasks or sub- programs that do specific parts of it. Each subtask should be designed so that it can be evaluated in- dependently before it is implemented in the larger scheme of things i. A well written code, when it works, is much more easily evaluated in the testing phase of the design process. If changes are necessary to correct sign mistakes and the like, they can be easily implemented. One thing to keep in mind when you add comments to describe the process programmed is this: Add enough comments and references so that a year from the time you write the program you know exactly what was done and for what purpose. Note that the first few comment lines in a script file are displayed in the Command Window when you type help followed by the name of your file file naming is also an art.

The design process1 is outlined next. The steps may be listed as follows: Step 1 Problem analysis. The context of the proposed investigation must be es- tablished to provide the proper motivation for the design of a computer program. The designer must fully recognize the need and must develop an understanding of the nature of the problem to be solved. Step 2 Problem statement. Develop a detailed statement of the mathematical problem to be solved with a computer program. Step 3 Processing scheme. Define the inputs required and the outputs to be produced by the program.

Step 4 Algorithm. Design the step-by-step procedure in a top-down process that decomposes the overall problem into subordinate problems. The sub- tasks to solve the latter are refined by designing an itemized list of steps to be programmed. This list of tasks is the structure plan and is written in pseudo-code i. The goal is a plan that is understandable and easily translated into a computer language. Step 5 Program algorithm. Translate or convert the algorithm into a computer language e. Step 6 Evaluation. Test all of the options and conduct a validation study of the program. The objective is to determine that the sub- tasks and the overall program are correct and accurate.

The additional debugging in this step is to find and correct logical errors e. Step 7 Application. Solve the problems the program was designed to solve. If the program is well designed and useful, it can be saved in your working directory i. Let us consider the projectile problem examined in first-semester physics. It is assumed that engineering and science students understand this problem if it is not familiar to you, find a physics text that describes it or search the Web; the formulas that apply will be provided in step 2.

In this example we want to calculate the flight of a projectile e. We want to determine the trajectory of the flight path and the horizontal distance the projectile or object travels before it hits the ground. Let us assume zero air resistance and a constant gravitational force acting on the object in the oppo- site direction of the vertical distance from the ground. We want to determine the time it takes the projectile, from the start of motion, to hit the ground, the horizontal distance traveled, and the shape of the trajec- tory.

In addition, we want to plot the speed of the projectile versus the angular direction of this vector. We need, of course, the theory or mathematical ex- pressions that describes the solution to the zero-resistance projectile problem in order to develop an algorithm to obtain solutions to it. Step 2. The mathematical formulas that describe the solution to the projectile problem are provided in this step. Then the maximum values of the altitude and the range are computed along with their respective arrival times. Step 3. The outputs are the range and time of flight, the maximum altitude and the time it is reached, and the shape of the trajectory in graphical form.

The algorithm and structure plan developed to solve this problem are given next as a MATLAB program, because it is relatively straightforward and the translation to MATLAB is well commented with details of the approach applied to its solution i. This plan, and M-file, of course, is the summary of the results developed by trying a number of approaches during the design process, and thus discard- ing numerous sheets of scratch paper before summarizing the results! There are more explicit examples of structure plans for your review and investigation in the next section of this chapter. Keep in mind that it was not difficult to enumerate a list of steps associated with the general design process, that is, the technical problem solving.

However, it is certainly not so easy to imple- ment the steps because they draw heavily on your technical-solution design experience. Hence, we must begin by studying the design of relatively simple programs like the one described in this section. Define the input variables. Calculate the range and duration of the flight. Compute the trajectory. Display in the Command Window and on figures the ouput. Steps 6 and 7. The program was evaluated by executing a number of values of the launch angle and launch speed within the required specifications. The an- gle of 45 degrees was checked to determine that the maximum range occurred at this angle for all specified launch speeds. This is well known for the zero air resistance case in a constant g force field.

How can you find additional examples of MATLAB programs good ones or otherwise to help develop tools to solve your own problems? There are also many examples of use- ful scripts that are placed on the Web for anyone interested in them. This responsibility holds for all tools applied by the engineer and the scientist. Hence, it is very important just as in using a laboratory apparatus that users prove to themselves that the tool they are using is indeed valid for the problem they are trying to solve.

To check that it works, type each line in the Command Window followed by Enter. Note the position of each graphic; location is determined by the three integers in the subplot function list of arguments. Search Help via the question mark? A function M-file is similar to a script file in that it also has a. However, a function M-file differs from a script file in that a function M-file communicates with the MATLAB workspace only through specially designated input and output argu- ments. Functions are indispensable tools when it comes to breaking a problem down into manageable logical pieces.

Short mathematical functions may be written as one-line inline objects. This capability is illustrated by example in the next subsection. Further details on writing functions are provided in Chapter The construction of a function file starts with the declaration of a function command. This is followed by the formula that is the function of interest that you wish to substitute a particular value of x to get the corresponding value of y. The structure plan for the evaluation of a particular algebraic function is as follows: 1. It was saved as f. After saving it, it was used as follows in the Command Window. We want to determine the two roots of this equation, i. One way of dealing with this problem is to apply the known solutions of the quadratic equation.

Start 2. It is a useful exercise to test all possibilities to evaluate whether or not this function successfully deals with all quadratic equations with constant coefficients. The purpose of this example was to il- lustrate how to construct a function file. Note that the only variables in the Workspace are the coefficients a b c. The variables defined and needed in the function are not included in the Workspace. Hence, functions do not clutter the Workspace with the variables only needed in the function itself to execute the commands within it. Carry out the plan by sketching the construction: 1. Draw two perpendicular x- and y-axes 2. Draw the points A 10, 0 and B 0, 1 3.

While A does not coincide with the origin repeat: Draw a straight line joining A and B Move A one unit to the left along the x-axis Move B one unit up on the y-axis 4. Stop 3. Display M 4. Stop a Work through the structure plan, sketching the contents of M and N during execution. Give the output. Test it on the data in Exercise 2. Use the structure plan in Section 3. Your script should be able to handle all possible values of the data a, b, and c. Adjust your script so that it can also find complex roots. However, it is good for the development of your programming skills to do it the long way, as in this exercise. Plot y versus t for t from 0 to 10 in increments of 0. Hint: Develop a solution procedure by working backwards through the problem statement.

Starting at the end of the problem statement, the solution procedure requires the programmer to assign the input vari- ables first followed by the execution of the formula for the amplitude and ending with the output in graphical form. This shape is called a uniform catenary. However, more interesting problems in science and engineering data This chapter introduces you to the more common Exercises In addition, you may wish to import data to be plotted or operated on mathematically, and export data for future use.

It also discusses the exporting of data to files in your work directory for later use with MATLAB or with other software tools. A short list of some of the more common ones follows. Use helpwin at the command line to see a list of categories of functions, with links to descriptions of the functions. Note that if the argument of a function is an array, the function is applied element by element to all the values in the array, e.

It is also, to some extent, expected that you already know, from your first courses in mathematics and science, something about these functions. One way to ex- amine these functions is to plot them. For example, do the following exercise for all functions of the assigned variable x, as illustrated next. Note how the hours, minutes and seconds are left- filled with zeros if necessary. Let us consider the arc-cosine, the arc-sine and the arc-tangent functions, i. If you specify x, i. To provide an answer, the following M-file script was created and executed. The graphical comparison of the computed results is illustrated in Fig. Valentine - September The process of moving data between MATLAB and disk files is called importing from disk files and exporting to disk files.

Data are saved in disk files in one of two formats: text or binary. Binary format is more efficient in terms of storage space required. You can use tabs instead of spaces by specifying the -tabs qualifier instead of -ascii. If you save character arrays strings in this way, the ASCII codes of the characters are written to the file. If the array A has been saved in myData. You can create it in a text editor, or it could be created by any other program that exports data in ASCII format.

Write a script to input a length in meters which may have a dec- imal part and convert it to yards, feet and inches. Check: 3. The program displays every member xn computed. Adjust it to display only every 10th value of xn. Hint: the expression rem n, 10 will be zero only when n is an exact multiple of Use this in an if statement to display every tenth value of xn. Write a script which inputs a number of minutes and converts it to hours and minutes. Now write a script to convert seconds into hours, minutes and seconds. Try out your script on 10 seconds, which should convert to 2 hours, 46 minutes and 40 seconds. The plan must specify the number and type of all notes and coins in the change, and should in all cases give as few notes and coins as possible.

If you are not familiar with dollars and cents, use your own monetary system. It carries a uniformly distributed load of W per unit length, and there is a tension T along the x-axis. The topic is so useful and, hence, important that it deserves Operator a chapter of its own. It should re- Using any and all.. Enter the following statements: Summary Can you see why 0 0 0 1 0 is returned? When a vector is involved in a logical expression, the comparison is carried out element by element as in an arithmetic operation. If the comparison is true for a particular element of the vector, the resulting vector, which is called a logical vector, has a 1 in the corresponding position; otherwise it has a 0.

The same applies to logical expressions involving matrices. You can also compare vectors with vectors in logical expressions. The following script plots the graph, shown in Fig. Element-by-element multiplication by y with. A neat way around this problem is to use a logical vector to replace the zero with eps. B Restricted vertical coordinate. If you are not too hot at trig graphs, perhaps you should sketch the graph roughly with pen and paper before you run the script! The scale on the MATLAB plot is therefore very large about , making it impossible to see the structure of the graph anywhere else. The graph thus goes through zero at these points, which incidentally draws nearly vertical asymptotes for you.

Work out the following problem on the command line: 1. Now use a similar statement to count how many elements of r are greater than or equal to 0. Since rand generates uniformly distributed random numbers, you would expect the number of random numbers which are less than 0. Generate a vector of a few thousand random numbers suppress display with a semi-colon this time and use a logical vector to count how many are less than 0. Repeat a few times with a new set of random numbers each time. Because the numbers are random, you should never get quite the same answer each time. Without logical vectors this problem is a little more involved. Compare times for the two methods on your com- puter. Discarding the decimal part of this expression with floor gives an integer in the required range.

Verify your result by displaying d. Estimate the probability of throwing a six by dividing the number of sixes thrown by Using random numbers like this to mimic a real situation based on chance is called simulation. Repeat with more random numbers in the vector d. The more you have, the closer the proportion of sixes gets to the theoretical expected value of 0. Can you see why it would be incorrect to use round instead of floor? The problem is that round rounds in both directions, whereas floor rounds everything down. Table 5. The OR operator is technically an inclusive OR, because it is true when ei- ther or both of its operands are true. See Help on ops. The precedence levels of the logical operators, among others, are shown in Table 5. As usual, precedences may be overridden with brackets, e.

Precedence Operators 1. OR It is never wrong to use brackets to make the logic clearer, even if they are syn- tactically unnecessary. If you have got this far you deserve to be let into a secret. MATLAB is based on the notorious lan- guage C, which allows you to mix different types of operators in this way Pascal, for example, would never allow such flexibility! The explana- tion is due partly to the resolution of surprise a. The complete op- erator precedence is given in Table 5. Brackets always have the highest precedence. It simply churns through the expression according to its rules which may not be what you expect.

Suppose r has the value 0. Mathematically, the inequality is true for this value of r since it lies in the required range. The script in Section 5. In general, if x and v are vectors, where v has n elements, then x v means [x v 1 , x v 2 , The function logical v returns a logical vector, with elements which are 1 or 0 according as the elements of v are non-zero or 0. What will a logical [1 1 1 0 0] return?

And what about a logical [0 0 0 0 0]? Logical vector subscripts provide an elegant way of removing certain elements from a vector, e. However, the numeric vector [0 0 1 1 1] is not a logical vector; the statement islogical [0 0 1 1 1] returns 0. Examples are given in the following list where x is a vector unless otherwise stated. See Help on logical functions. The functions are defined slightly differently for matrix arguments—see Chapter 6 or Help. For other possible return values see help. Note that a must be enclosed in apostrophes. Another use of find is in finding the subscripts of the largest or smallest elements in a vector, when there is more than one. An empty array has a size of 0-by This function may be used to remove NaNs from a set of data.

This situa- tion could arise while you are collecting statistics; missing or unavailable values can be temporarily represented by NaNs. However, if you do any calculations involving the NaNs, they propagate through intermediate cal- culations to the final result. Recall from Chapter 2 that a vector condition in an if statement is true only if all its elements are non-zero. So if you want to execute statement below when two vectors a and b are equal i. They are almost always faster than other methods, although often not as clear to read later. The following example illustrates these points by first solving a problem conventionally, and then with logical vectors.

It has been said that there are two unpleasant and unavoidable facts of life: death and income tax. We would like to calculate the income tax on the following taxable incomes in dollars : , 10 , 15 , 30 and 50 Start by entering the vector inc as given. Next enter inc. This has successfully selected only the incomes in the first bracket. Now for the second tax bracket. Now enter 0. Only the third entry is correct. Multiplying this vector by the logical vector just obtained blots out the other entries, giving [0 0 0 0].

The result can be safely added to the vector tax since it will not affect the first two entries already there. I am sure you will agree that the logical vector solution is more interesting than the conventional one! A logical vector is returned. Great care must be taken in observing the correct operator precedence in such situations. This provides faster more elegant code, but requires more ingenuity and the code may be less clear to read later on.

You may need to consult Ta- ble 5. Check that they work, e. The number of em- ployees paid at each level are, respectively: , , , , , and Write some statements at the command line to find the following: a The average salary level. Use mean. Answer: 32 b The number of employees above and below this average salary level. Use logical vectors to find which salary levels are above and below the average level. Multiply these logical vectors element by element with the employee vector, and sum the result. Answer: above, below c The average salary earned by an individual in the company i. Answer: 17 The idea is to end up with [1 2 0] in x. Use find and the empty vector [ ]. The five residents use the following amounts units of electricity in a certain month: , , , and Display the results in two columns: one for the electricity used in each case, and one for amount owed.

Creating matrices.. Duplicating rows — Linear equations. An arrangement of data in rows and columns, e. A mathematical object, for which particular mathematical operations are Array element-by- element operations defined, e. We then go on to look briefly at the mathematical operations on nested fors: loan matrices. In a later chapter we will see how these operations can be applied repayment tables The costs, in some suitable cur- functions The real problem is to find the systems The cost table and the solution can then be represented by tables C and X, say, where cij is the entry in row i and column j of the cost table, with a similar conven- tion for X.

To compute the cost of the above solution, each entry in the solution ta- ble must be multiplied by the corresponding entry in the cost table. This operation is not to be confused with the mathematical operation of matrix multiplication, which is discussed later. Bigger matrices can be constructed from smaller ones, e. Alternatively, and less commonly, a single subscript may be used. So a 5 for the above example returns 4. If you refer to a subscript which is out of range, e. Essentially, what is happening in the above examples is that the colon operator is being used to create vector subscripts. However, a colon by itself in place of a subscript denotes all the elements of the corresponding row or column. So a 3,: means all elements in the third row.

This feature may be used, for example, to construct tables. On the right-hand side of an assignment, a : gives all the elements of a strung out by columns in one long column vector, e. Then a : denotes a matrix with the same dimen- sions shape as a, but with new contents taken from the right-hand side. In other words, the matrix on the right-hand side is reshaped into the shape of a on the left-hand side.

Some examples may help. See help. Whether the colon operator appears on the right- or left-hand side of an assignment, the matrices or submatrices on each side of the assignment have the same shape except in the special case below. This can be done with the repmat function as follows. The above statement tiles a floor with three rows and one column of such a strip of tiles. There is an alternative syntax for repmat: repmat a, 3, 1 An interesting example of this process appears at the end of this section in the loan repayment problem. First unwind a by columns, then remove elements 2, 4 and 6. The same effect is achieved with a :, [1 3] 6. See help elmat. For very large matrices repmat is usually faster than ones and zeros.

They are special matrices that were discovered by mathematicians, the motivation for their discovery and other details about them you are not expected to understand. MATLAB has a number of other functions which generate special matrices, such as gallery, hadamard, hankel, hilb, toeplitz, vander, etc. To test if all the elements of a are true, use all twice. In this example, the statement all all a returns 0 because some of the elements of a are 0. If you are not sure whether a particular function operates columnwise or ele- ment by element on matrices, you can always request help.

See help for details. This provides a neat way of processing all the columns of a matrix. You can do the same with the rows if you transpose a, e. Get it? This subject is discussed briefly in Chapter 9, with illustrations. Since P is directly proportional to A in the above formula, the repayments of a loan of any amount can be found by simple proportion from such a table. The inner loop can easily be vectorized; the following code uses only one for The really tough challenge, however, is to vectorize the outer loop as well. We want a table with 11 rows and 3 columns. For example, when the calculation is made for P in row 2 and column 1, the array operations pick out row 2 of r all 0. The nested for way might be easier to program, but this way is certainly more interesting and quicker to execute.

The third dimension of a numbers the pages. This is analogous to a spreadsheet with multiple sheets: each sheet contains a table matrix. You can get into hyperpages with higher dimensions if you like! Massachusetts is still a shifting landscape as the state continues to release new regulations and information just a few months out. Click here to register for this event and submit questions in advance! May 15, Every time I think I can write about something other than COVID, along comes another new law, regulation, or interpretation that I want to share with you.

There are new deadlines in town. Extensions are in place with respect to disability plans for claimants to file an initial claim for benefits and to appeal an adverse benefit determination. ERISA rules do not provide a specific minimum timeframe that must be allowed for an individual to file an initial claim for disability benefits. Rather, the timeframe is set by the plan. For adverse benefit determinations, the regular ERISA rules provide that a disability benefits plan must allow at least days to appeal.

This period too is now extended by the Outbreak Period. The President declared a national emergency on March 13, In other words, the time for filing is tolled for the duration of the Outbreak Period. Here are some examples. For purposes of these examples we need an announced end date of the National Emergency and we will use April 30, The Outbreak Period ends 60 days later, on June However, since her disability occurred during the Outbreak Period, her 30 days to file a claim does not start until June Marie has 30 days from that date, or until July 30, to file her claim.

The notification tells Donnie he has days within which to file an appeal. However, the Outbreak Period is disregarded in calculating this days. This new rule applies retroactively. We are on top of this and ready to comply with the new deadlines. If you have any questions, please contact your Matrix or Reliance Standard account manager. The conditions include chronic lung disease, moderate to severe asthma, serious heart conditions, compromised immune systems, severe obesity body mass index [BMI] of 40 or higher , diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and liver disease.

I ndividuals with high-risk medical conditions may request an accommodation to reduce the risk of exposure to COVID As with all ADA requests, the employee does not need to mention the ADA or the word accommodation specifically, but merely has to make the employer aware that she needs a change in her work situation due to a medical condition. The employer may then ask questions or seek medical documentation to help decide if the individual has a disability and if there is a reasonable accommodation, barring undue hardship , that can be provided. Question G.

An employee with a high-risk disability who has never needed an accommodation may now need one as a result of the pandemic:. Example : An employee with controlled diabetes normally functions at work without any accommodation, or with an accommodation not tied to COVID e. Then, because the employee has a high risk disease, the employee requests an accommodation to reduce the risk of exposure, such as a separated work station or work from home. So do what you always do : engage in the interactive process with the employee to see if you can meet her needs.

T he Job Accommodation Network www. The EEOC encourages employers and employees to be creative and flexible. Do you force the employee to stay home or accept other accommodations for his own good? Be careful there, cowboy. First, without a request for such an accommodation, you have no obligation to provide it. Thanks to our already robust processes for managing ADA accommodations , Matrix has not had to make changes to provide our ADA clients with compliant accommodation services.

The latest set of Questions and Answers from the Department of Labor 93 includes a potpourri of topics. Here are the ones we find of greatest interest:. Employees from temporary agencies. In many temporary worker situations the second employer is a joint employer of the temp worker. But the determination of whether the second employer is a joint employer of the temp employee requires legal analysis of all the facts of the relationship. And how do you handle tax and other withholding? School closures — now and in the summer. Can I deny that?

Sorry, no. But, if the anticipated summer day care provider, summer camp ,, etc. Just have the employee follow the usual notice and documentation rules. Question Also covered: FFCRA and casual domestic workers Question 89 and permissible documentation for an employee taking leave to obtain testing Question Recently the NY Workers Compensation Board , which administers the law , came out with a new interpretation of one of the benefits: a total flip-flop from its prior position.

We previously summarized the law here and have kept that post up to date, including this change. But because the new interpretation affects employees of companies with or more employees, we want to draw attention to it. Under the law as we thought it was written employees of small companies those with fewer than employees seeking paid sick leave if any provided by the law , could take NY Paid Family Leave for a new leave reason, to care for a child under an order of quarantine or isolation; but employees of large companies those with or more employees did not have this entitlement.

If you thought riding that bucking bronco for the full 8 seconds was challenging, try your hand at trying to stay on top of the NY paid sick leave law! Yee haw! May 12, So enough with the coronavirus already, right? In this session, we will discuss scenarios where the honest belief defense has been effective in defending FMLA decisions. We will contrast these examples with highlights of areas where employers failed to make their case, and examine the differences. Attendees will leave with an understanding of what elements are critical to substantiate an honest belief defense.

April 29, COVID news just keeps coming. Today we saddle up with:. The agency has lately added more questions and answers to the guidance. Here are some of the key takeaways, but be sure to consult the full document — this is a summary and the EEOC has much more info for you! Employers may take steps to determine if employees entering the workplace have COVID because an individual with the virus will pose a direct threat to the health of others. However, employers should ensure that the tests are accurate and reliable and should still require — to the greatest extent possible — that employees admitted to the workplace observe infection control practices to prevent transmission of the virus. And see the OSHA segment below.

If there is some urgency to providing an accommodation, or the employer has limited time available to discuss the request during the pandemic, may an employer provide a temporary accommodation? In addition, employers may wish to set an end date for an accommodation expected to be temporary or approve it on a trial basis. If circumstances change the employer should consider an extension of a temporary accommodation or whether a different accommodation is needed. Examples include increased difficulty due to the pandemic in obtaining special equipment, providing temporary assignments, or removing marginal functions. An employer cannot simply reject any accommodation that costs money but must weigh the cost of an accommodation against its current budget and current constraints created by this pandemic.

Even under current circumstances, there may be many no-cost or very low-cost accommodations. If a particular accommodation poses an undue hardship, employers and employees should work together to determine if there may be an alternative that could be provided that does not pose such problems. Can a Movie-of-the-Week be far behind? Reggio informed her boss Mark Tekin of the order and of her inability to leave home and go to work as a result. Tekin terminated Reggio on March 27 when she continued to refuse to violate the Dallas County order and go to work. The case is Reggio v. CC B. Lessons for employers. These tough times call for new ways of doing things.

Employers need to be flexible and approach difficult situations with an open mind. Remember, special measures imposed as a result of COVID are temporary, so allowing something that is not usually done can also be temporary. This was not a situation where the employee, on her own, decided not to go to work because she was uncomfortable or concerned about being exposed to the virus. In that case the employer might be able to require the employee come to work, but it needs to take appropriate measures in the workplace to ensure a safe environment — and for that issue, read on! Employers are required to provide a safe workplace and appropriate safety equipment for workers. Employers outside of a manufacturing, processing, or other heavy industry may not regularly think about OSHA requirements.

The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration administers laws that regulate worker safety, which will take on new significance as employees go back to the office. In addition, states may have their own workplace safety laws and regulations. As we move toward returning employees to the workplace, employers should develop a plan for what that will look like. Just be safe and be smart. California seems to be the hotbed of such activity Who saw that coming? Guidance from the Office of Labor Standards Enforcement is available here.

Guidance and additional resources from the San Jose Office of Equality are available here. Remember that many municipalities and states have existing paid sick leave laws that are likely to cover a variety of COVID-related needs for time off. My go-to resource is A Better Balance for a chart of paid sick leave laws across the country. The rules are effective for 30 days after adoption presently through May 27 or the duration of the State of Disaster Emergency declare by the Colorado governor, but with a maximum of days after April All employees of a covered industry and working in a covered position are eligible for HELP. Heehee, that totally works in a sentence! Good job, Colorado! Covered employers include those engaged in, or employing workers in, numerous industries, with no employer size limitations coverage was effective as of March 11 unless a different date is indicated.

Examples: leisure and hospitality, retail, real estate, office work, elective health services, personal care services, food and beverage manufacturing and services, education, and various elder or community care services. Paid leave is available for up to two weeks, with a maximum of 80 hours. Paid sick leave ends following certain periods of being symptom free. However, if an employee has exhausted all paid sick leave allotted by the employer, then the employer must provide additional paid sick leave up to the amount required by HELP.

Employees must provide advance notice of the need for leave as soon as possible, unless they are too ill to communicate, and notice within 24 hours of getting a COVID test or receiving instructions to quarantine or isolate. Hopefully you joined my Reliance Standard colleague Karen Joseph a couple weeks ago for our webinar on COVID related federal and state leave legislation and how to apply it. Plan to attend! Click here to register. Once you see the screen pop up with your name, go ahead and close the box: We will email you a confirmation before the event.

April 28, As we all work to acclimate to the new normal that is the current COVID world, state, local, and federal governments and agencies have been working tirelessly to respond to this unprecedented situation. Although we hope things will settle down soon, we have seen more developments in just the last few days. Here is our roundup for today:. The latest release includes new Questions Various pay scenarios are addressed e. Our personal favorite question is 87, which addresses whether stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders qualify as quarantine or isolation orders to entitle an employee to take leave under the FFCRA for reasons relating to one of those orders.

See also Question The answer is YES. A common challenge for employers is understanding when they can require an employee to use other paid leave benefits and when the employee gets to choose. Question 86 addresses this as well as prior Questions This gets complex so if you are struggling with this issue please read Question 86 in full. The last new Question 88 warns employers that if the employer fails to pay an employee in accordance with the requirements of FFCRA, the employee can recover the full amount of wages that should have been paid under the FFCRA. What am I missing here? Pay me the amount owed as I take leave, or pay me the same amount later? So not only is paying the wages as they are due under the FFCRA the right thing to do, it is also the prudent thing to do.

Specifically, the Order provides sick leave in the following limited instances:. Workers who are scheduled for 40 hours a week, or who have worked 40 hours per week in the two weeks prior to taking the leave, are eligible for 80 hours of leave, while workers who do not work 40 hours are eligible for a prorated leave based on average hours worked over the past 6 months. The Executive Order is in effect from April 16 for the duration of any state-wide stay-at-home orders issued by the State Public Health Officer. A Food Sector Worker who has commenced the supplemental paid sick leave prior to the termination of all stay-at-home orders may complete the necessary leave. Specifically, the Proclamation protects employees who are at a heightened risk for complications with COVID, as defined by the CDC, by prohibiting all employers from failing to provide accommodations to high-risk employees.

Employers must first try to keep high risk employees working by providing alternative work assignments, including but not limited to telework or remote work locations, when possible. If alternative work assignments are not possible, the employer must allow the employee to take leave as an accommodation, free from risk of adverse employment action, using any accrued leave, or, if exhausted, unemployment insurance at the discretion of the employee. Additionally, should the employee exhaust paid leave while on an accommodated leave, the employer must maintain employer-provided health benefits until the employee is deemed eligible to return to work.

The Proclamation is in effect from April 13 through June 12, , unless extended. The fact sheet provides the following important information:. And watch for your personal invite to our next webinar, where we will dig into all this good stuff! With this blog post we welcome a new contributor, Armando Rodriguez. April 17, At Matrix and Reliance Standard, we have been tirelessly keep ing up with the explosion of legislation that has been introduced and enacted to address COVID related leave s of absence, disability plans, paid sick leave, and accommodations.

Here is a link to that blog post. These amendments were made effective retroactively to March 25, Here is a summary of the important changes:. Expansion of the Definition of Family Leave : The amendment broadens the bases for which an eligible employee can take FLA to include leave fr om employment. New leave reasons include :. For leave due to school or day care closing, the employer may only request documentation of the date and reason for closing. Similarly, for reason 2, the only documentation required is the date of issuance of the determination and probable duration.

Intermittent leave. This seems odd in that the law allows an employee to work intermittently even if the reason for leave is quarantine of a family member due to known or suspected exposure to the communicable disease — which means the employee himself may also have been exposed. There is no limitation such as intermittent leaves being available only for an employee who is able to work remotely.

Matrix can Help! We are constantly updating our leave administration practices and staff training to apply each new COVIDrelated provision. So , reach out to your account manage r with specific questions and make sure to continue to read our blog for the latest updates and developments. Stay safe! April 15, The law was effective immediately. We originally posted a summary of the New York law on March Many thanks to Kimberly Dunn , my colleague at Reliance Standard Life Insurance, for her review and valuable input on this update — keeping me straight and accurate! Here are the specifics:. Covered employees. All employees are covered; no eligibility requirements for paid sick leave; regular eligibility requirements for paid family leave and disability benefits.

Covered employers. All employers are covered. Leave reasons. Rather, e mployers are required to provide paid leave for absences due to a COVIDrelated mandatory or precautionary order of quarantine or isolation issued by the state of New York, the department of health, local board of health, or any governmental entity duly authorized to issue such order due to COVID An order from a medical provider to stay home or in quarantine will not suffice.

Amount and type of benefits : The law provides 3 types of paid leave and benefits. Avai l a bi li ty of the benefits depends on employer size and in some cases, net worth , and whether the employee or a dependent minor child is the subject of the quarantine order. However, benefits are not available if the employee is able to work during the quarantine through remote access or through other means. The type of benefits are:. Employers with e mployees. Employers with or more employees. Public e mployers of any size. Child quarantine:. Thes e enhance d benefits consist of:.

Measuring 5 or 14 days. During a covered quarantine leave the employee is entitled to pay for the number of days the employee would normally work in 5 or 14 calendar days. For example, an employee who works for a company with 60 employees is entitle d to 5 calendar days of paid leave. If that employee works a regular Monday-Friday work week and starts a quarantine leave on a Thursday , that employee would get 3 days of pay: Thursday, Friday, and Monday. The order of quarantine. The employee is responsible for providing the employer with a copy of the order justifying the quarantine leave. New York has published a document Obtaining an Order that gives employees directions on how to obtain the relevant order and what to do if an order is not immediately available.

Some normal PFL and disability rules still apply. What is not yet clear is whether use of the enhanced benefits counts as weeks of bo th PFL and disability. Multiple quarantines. The 5 or 14 days of paid leave is a single entitlement. The employer is not required to provide additional paid leave if the employee exhausts her 5 or 14 days and then experiences a subsequent quarantine event. However, any unused time can be carried over to another quarantine event. Regular statutory disability and PFL benefits. Likewise, the employee can apply for regular PFL for any of the usual leave reasons, including to care for a family member with a serious health condition. Note that public employers of any size are not covered employers for purposes of disability and PFL benefits, so unless an entity has opted into coverage, its employees cannot receive these benefits for any purpose.

Determining employer coverage. E mploye r size is determined by the number of employees the company had on January 1, So, an employer could have employees total and only one employee in New York; that one employee would be entitle to the 14 days of paid sick leave. Other details. The employer cannot require an employee to use other paid leave prior to the new statutory paid sick leave. Following such leave, t he employee must be restored to the position held prior to the quarantine. This change is effective for 90 days from March 27, until June 25, State Website Resources. Something new h appens every day in Coronaville! Stay tuned here for more developments and contact your Matrix or Reliance Standard account manager if you have any questions.

April 14, Since the passage of the Families First Coronavirus Response Act FFCRA , many of these questions have revolved around a big issue for big ger employers: What about companies that have or more employees? We reviewed:. You can obtain a copy of our presentation deck here , and listen to a recording of the session here. My company has more than employees. Some individuals who have COVID are asymptomatic or have very mild symptoms that will not rise to the level of a serious health condition. Two specific definitions of serious health condition may be applicable here 29 C. Despite the difficulty in getting an in-person medical appointment, an employer may still require in-person treatment by a health care provider and a written certification.

Employers do have the ability to waive this requirement and accept a certif ication following a telemedicine appointment or waive the certification requirement altogether. Employers should consult with their legal counsel on whether , in that case , the employer should take the same approach to certification requirements for all serious health conditions, not just COVID claims. M aybe this makes sense, as employees will have an even tougher time get an appointment and medical certification for non-coronavirus health conditions.

All other regular FMLA rules also continue to apply, including employee eligibility, total week entitlement, required employer and employee notices, and so on. Employers need to approach this decision with eyes wide open. With those two factors in mind, employers with or more employees can certainly offer the same type of benefits to its employees as a new company policy or benefit. And, a ny employer can allow but often can not require! My Company has more than employees. You are not a covered employer so no need to put up the DOL-approved poster available here in several languages for those who DO need to post or share electronically! In fact, posting the notice if your company is not covered might just add confusion to an already confusing situation for employees.

My business is made up of multiple companies, some over and some under employees. The previous question provides the answer here: be aware of the two key factors in making your decision. So the employees of the larger companies may be able to take more leave in a month period, paid or unpaid, than employees of the smaller companies. Be ready for employee dissatisfaction with perceived inequities in benefits among the companies! Whether an employer has fewer than employees is determined as of the first day of leave of EACH employee requesting leave. That means, for example, that an employer with employees today does not have to grant leaves that will start today ; but a week later, if the employee headcount drops to , the employer does have to grant leaves requested to start that day.

This may include leave for the employees denied today. Feeling like a broken record here, but there are so many permutations on that rule! My business is made up of several related entities. A corporation is a single employer rather than its separate establishments or divisions. Where this test is met, the employees of all entities making up the integrated employer will be counted in determining employer coverage and employee eligibility. A determination of whether or not separate entities are an integrated employer is not determined by the application of any single criterion, but rather the entire relationship is to be reviewed in its totality. Factors considered in determining whether two or more entities are an integrated employer include:.

On the other hand, if your under corporate entity is affiliated with other companies but does not satisfy the integrated employer test you may be covered by FFCRA without realizing it. My company usually has more than employees, but we have had to furlough hundreds and now have fewer than active employees. However, furloughed or laid off employees may be entitled to unemployment benefits , which vary from state to state. Specifically, New York passed a law, effective March 18, , which provides paid leave to employees of all employers when the employee or a minor dependent child is subject to an order of quarantine or isolation.

The type and amount of paid benefits available to employees depends on employer size. Employers with or more employees must provide 14 calendar days of paid leave due to an employee or minor child quarantine that is, pay for the number of days the employee would normally work in a day period. Look, there are obviously a number of factors in play surrounding the recent COVID laws, particularly as they relate to providing benefits voluntarily to companies with more than employees. But remember, consulting with legal counsel and a tax expert is always advisable if employers with over employees choose to provide benefits more generous than those required under the law. April 13, The best thing about the just-concluded long weekend is that it gave me a chance to catch up on the latest Coronavirus guidance issued by various entities.

Top of the world, Ma! This edition has 20 new questions, starting with There are no surprises but some of the answers do provide helpful interpretive information. As you read, remember this guiding principle:. So, for example, if an employee must stay home to care for a small child due to a school closure but the employer has closed its place of business and has no work the employee could otherwise perform, the employee is not entitled to pay benefits. Quarantine orders Question For purposes of EPSL, a quarantine or isolation order includes a shelter-in-place or stay-at-home order issued by any federal, state, or local government authority as well as a specific order directed at an individual employee or family member.

Self-quarantine Questions , An employee may receive benefits during a self-quarantine only when acting pursuant to the advice of a health care provider. The same applies for leave to care for an individual in self-quarantine. Care for others who are quarantined Questions An employee may be able take EPSL to care for another individual who is under a governmental order of quarantine or isolation or who is quarantined pursuant to the advice of a health care provider, but must meet the following criteria: 1 the individual is unable to care for herself 2 the individual depends on the employee for care; and 3 providing the care prevents the employee from working or teleworking.

There must be a personal relationship between the employee and the individual. Age of child; care of child Questions 66, , Both EPSL and EFML are available to care for a child in quarantine or whose school or place of care has closed if the child is under age 18 or is 18 or older and in capable of self-care because of a disability. An employee may take EFML only to care for his own son or daughter due to a school or day care closer or other unavailability of daycare. It does not have to be dedicated solely to this purpose. Traditional day care facilities and preschools are included, as well as before and after school care programs, homes, and summer camps.

This leads us to wonder, what will happen when summer hits if school closures are still in effect? Will parents be able to take leave when a different place of care that they would then have relied on is still closed? Remember, 12 weeks of leave staring April 1, for example, will extend to June An employee can take leave to care for a child due to a school closure, etc. Leave is not available if another provider such as a co-parent is available. A school is considered closed even if it is offering online instruction or other at-home schooling resources.

Closure of the physical location is what counts. Such benefits are paid because the employee is unable to work due to an injury or illness. However, an employee on a voluntary leave of absence for example, bonding with a new child or on sabbatical or vacation can chose to end the leave and take FFCRA benefits for a qualifying reason that then prevents the employee from working. On the other hand, if an employee is on a mandatory leave of absence e.

DOL enforcement Questions Rather, the DOL will expect employers to use good faith efforts to comply, correct any violations that occur during that period, and commit to ongoing compliance. Otherwise, the DOL will retroactively enforce violations back to April 1, Other topics covered in Round 4 include counting employees of a staffing company Question 74 and calculating pay for seasonal employees Question The Guidance applies to these employees:. Workers who have had a potential exposure are permitted to keep working provided they are asymptomatic and take additional workplace precautions:.

The update covers several topics such as medical inquiries, confidentiality, hiring and onboarding, and furloughs. Of greatest to us in the absence and accommodations business are the new questions and answers about COVID and accommodations. The update starts with a recommendation to consult with the Job Ac commodation Network JAN for assistance with accommodations, a suggestion with which we at Matrix heartily agree. In the meantime, here is the new guidance. I borrowed liberally from the EEOC document itself rather than reinvent the wheel. If a job may only be performed at the workplace, are there reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities absent undue hardship that could offer protection to an employee who, due to a preexisting disability, is at higher risk from COVID?

If an employee has a preexisting mental illness or disorder that has been exacerbated by the COVID pandemic, may he now be entitled to a reasonable accommodation absent undue hardship? Employees with certain preexisting mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder, may have more difficulty than other employees handling the disruption to daily life that has accompanied the COVID pandemic. Employers may ask questions to determine whether the condition is a disability; discuss with the employee how the requested accommodation would assist him and enable him to keep working; explore alternative accommodations that may effectively meet his needs; and request medical documentation if needed.

In a workplace where all employees are required to telework during this time, should an employer postpone discussing a request from an employee with a disability for an accommodation that will not be needed until he returns to the workplace when mandatory telework ends? Not necessarily. An employer may give higher priority to discussing requests for reasonable accommodations that are needed while teleworking, but the employer may begin discussing this request now. The employer may be able to acquire all the information it needs to make a decision.

If a reasonable accommodation is granted, the employer also may be able to make some arrangements for the accommodation in advance. What if an employee was already receiving a reasonable accommodation prior to the COVID pandemic and now requests an additional or altered accommodation? An employee who was already receiving a reasonable accommodation prior to the COVID pandemic may be entitled to an additional or altered accommodation, absent undue hardship.

The employer may discuss with the employee whether the same or a different disability is the basis for this new request and why an additional or altered accommodation is needed. At some point, hopefully soon, we will all be focusing less on coping and more on growing; and you will see we continue to shine! Subscribe now! We can, and will, help. April 03, Department of Labor on the new paid leave benefits available to many employees under the Families First Coronavirus Response Act.

In a mere pages in all fairness, double spaced the DOL sets out its official interpretation of what is, by general consensus, a very confusing law. I have read the regulations and found some degree of clarity from them. Taking metaphorical pen in hand, I begin our journey:. Oh, sorry, I was daydreaming that I worked for a company with hundreds of employment lawyers, with whom I could share the load. Thank you, Jeff and colleagues! At Matrix, we are training our folks, creating new intake procedures and new forms, answering client questions we get tons, and they get more granular every day! Even in these challenging times, we are committed to providing our clients with top notch leave, disability, and accommodations services in all regards. And as a final note, in case you need a little light reading for the weekend, here are some links to a DOL COVID webinar you might find useful — both for yourself and your employees:.

April 02, But remember, things keep changing so always look here for the latest! That will be part of my fun weekend. It will be an easy way to keep appropriate social distance! But the regs have arrived and you can enjoy them yourself here. First, a refresher. Details on how to claim the tax credit are available in the IRS guidance. Documentation is Really Important! The following information is found in Questions 44 and 45 of the IRS guidance:. In the case of a leave request based on a quarantine order or self-quarantine advice for the employee or a family member, the written statement from the employee should include:.

In the case of a leave request based on a school closing or child care provider unavailability , the written statement from the employee should include:. Does this mean that if one parent is home due to a business closure, the other parent cannot take paid leave to care for the child? It would seem so, and that seems fair. There is no guidance as to what would constitute special circumstances that make an employee unable to telework even though his children are over Special needs come to mind. And the beat goes on! In addition to the above documentation, the employer must create and maintain records that include the following information:.

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